The love affair between industrial agriculture and the antibiotic industry has come into an uncomfortable spotlight of late. In 2011, 7.7 million pounds of antibiotics were sold to treat sick people in the United States. This compares with a whopping 29.9 million pounds of antibiotics fed to cattle, pigs and poultry.1 Regular antibiotics doses keep perpetually overcrowded animals from falling ill and dying en masse, but antibiotics are also widely used to hasten growth, shortening an animal’s time to slaughter and increasing profit.
What’s the consequence of all this unfettered antibiotic use? Multi-drug resistant strains, or “superbugs” are on the rise. Our ability to keep pace with resistance by producing new antibiotics is diminishing. It’s even been suggested that we’re now entering a post-antibiotic era.
In 2010, representatives of the FDA, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Center for Disease Control and Prevention testified before Congress that a definitive link exists between the overuse of antibiotics in animal agriculture and antibiotic resistant diseases in humans.
But in spite of mounting evidence, the meat industry has largely succeeded in lobbying against any antibiotic restrictions. A major thrust of the industry’s argument is the lack of direct evidence linking antibiotic resistant bacteria bred on animal farms to human disease.
Now, proponents of antibiotic regulation may have some powerful new evidence to fuel their case. Microbial ecologist Ludek Zuerkand colleagues at Kansas State University are finding that insects- particularly houseflies and cockroaches- may represent the missing link between animal farms and human population centers.
Their review paper on insects and antibiotic resistance is currently in press in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.
Zurek’s research team focuses on Enterococci, a group of bacteria responsible for illnesses ranging from urinary-tract infections to meningitis. Enterococci are also rather infamous for developing multi-drug antibiotic resistance. In one study, researchers measured the abundance of Enterococci in two swine production facilities in Kansas and North Carolina. The scientists examined houseflies, roaches and pig feces collected at both sites, finding Enterococci in 89% of all samples. Multi-drug resistant strains were found everywhere. Moreover, the drug-resistant strains found in flies and roaches were genetically identical to the strains found in swine feces, indicating insects acquired their pathogens from pigs.
In another study, the researchers screened houseflies collected from five fast food restaurants in a town in northeastern Kansas. Ninety seven percent of flies harbored Enterococci. The most abundant strain, Enterococcus faecalis, showed resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics including tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and kanamycin. The scientists also identified transposons- snippets of DNA bacteria can swap during conjugation, their version of sex- that are associated with antibiotic resistant traits.
Ready-to-eat food from the same restaurants was also contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Contamination was higher in summer than winter, corresponding with increased numbers of houseflies in restaurants.
From these investigations, the researchers concluded that “food served in restaurants is commonly contaminated with antibiotic-resistant Enterococci and that houseflies may play a role in this contamination.”
Not wishing to lose points for a lack of thoroughness, the scientists decided to test directly whether insects from animal farms can contaminate food. In another study, they collected flies from a cattle feedlot and brought them back to the lab. Within thirty minutes, the flies deposited roughly 1,000 antibiotic-resistant Enterococci on a hapless beef patty. This experiment was carried out using as few as five flies.
Houseflies give bacteria more than just a free ride from farm to food. They may also serve as an incubator. Several studies have shown that pathogenic strains of E.coli proliferate in the gut of common houseflies and can be transferred during feeding.
Using a fluorescent protein to tag and track bacteria, Zurek’s research team found Enteroccoccus density peaks in the fly’s crop, or foregut, roughly 48 hours after ingestion. Significantly, houseflies regurgitate the contents of their crop while feeding. In doing so, they can disseminate bacteria into their food and water. Zurek suggests houseflies serve as a “bioenhanced vector for bacteria” because of their dual role as incubator and locomotion.
The work of Zurek and his fellow scientists has profound public health implications. Through many lines of evidence, this body of research demonstrates a direct link between the antibiotic resistant bacteria on factory farms and antibiotic resistant bacteria in our food.
Of course, none of this is terribly surprising, is it? We’ve known since biblical times that flies are harbingers of disease. Included in the ten Biblical Plagues in the Book of Exodus is the Plague of Flies, which “came [as a] grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies.”
However, when it comes to an issue as personal (and political) as food, we sometimes tend to forget unpleasant truths. In his book in Eating Animals, an acclaimed work of investigative journalism on the modern meat industry, Jonathan Safran Foer writes, “Food choices are determined by many factors, but reason (even consciousness) is generally not high on the list.” As hard scientific evidence accumulates on the link between antibiotic resistance on animal farms and public health, one can only hope growing consumer consciousness will force the meat industry to take a hard look at its practices.
Zurek, L., & Ghosh, A. (2014). Insects Represent a Link between Food Animal Farms and the Urban Environment for Antibiotic Resistance Traits Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 80 (12), 3562-3567 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00600-14